110年上學期 表面電子光譜學

星期二 下午02:20-05:30 綜合教學館202室

Office E-mail
Instructor 薛景中 中研院應科中心411B shyue at gate.sinica.edu.tw
Textbook G. Friedbacher and H. Bubert, Surface and Thin Film Analysis: A Compendium of Principles, Instrumentation, and Applications, Second, Completely Revised and Enlarged Edition, 2011, Wiley-VCH. DOI: 10.1002/9783527636921
References
  • J.I. Goldstein, D.E. Newbury, P. Echlin, D.C. Joy, C.E. Lyman, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer and J.R. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis, 4th ed., 2018, Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-6676-9
  • T.L. Alford, L.C. Feldman and J.W. Mayer, Fundamentals of Nanoscale Film Analysis, 2007, Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-29261-8
  • J.C. Vickerman and I.S. Gillmore, Surface Analysis – The Principal Techniques, 2nd ed., 2009, John Wiley & Sons. DOI: 10.1002/9780470721582
  • The Surface Science Society of Japan, Compendium of Surface and Interface Analysis, 2018, Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-6156-1
  • J.C. Rivière and S. Myhra, Handbook of Surface and Interface Analysis: Methods for Problem-Solving, 2nd ed., 2009, CRC Press. ISBN: 978-0-8493-7558-3
  • E. Meyer, H.J. Hug, R. Bennewitz, Scanning Probe Microscopy – The Lab on a Tip, 2004, Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-09801-1
  • F. Ernst and M. Rühle, High-Resolution Imaging and Spectrometry of Materials, 2003, Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-07766-5
  • J. O’Connor, B.A. Sexton, R.St.C. Smart, Surface Analysis Methods in Materials Science, 2003, Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-05227-3
  • D.P. Woodruff, T.A. Delchar, Modern Techniques of Surface Science, 2nd ed., 1994, Cambridge. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511623172
  • Website http://www.shyue.idv.tw/electron_spectroscopy.php
    http://es.shyue.idv.tw/
    Workload Homework, 2 in total 20% each 40%
    Mid-Term Exam 30% 30%
    Final Exam 30% 30%
    Total* 100%
    * If the final class average falls below 70%, a curved scale will be used, with the class average set at or near 78%.

    Homework Policies:

    Homework will be due in class at the second class meeting after it is assigned. Late homework will be subject to a penalty of 10% per day unless an extension has been arranged with the instructor prior to the due date. No late homework will be accepted after a solution set has been made available.
    Homework must be legible, with questions answered in numerical order, and stapled if more than one page long. Please: no spiral-bound paper, or pages connected by folding the corners. Students may consult with one another on the homework, but what is handed in must be each student's original, individual work. Homework assignments (or portions thereof) from different students that appear to have been copied or that otherwise appear to be identical may be returned to all the submitters with zero credit.
    The purpose of the homework is to illustrate, apply, and reinforce key topics, not to serve as dry runs for exams.

    Exam Policies:

    Students may bring pencils or pens, erasers, calculators and straight edges to the tests. The mid-term and final exam will be open-book and open-notes. Computer/Pad is also allowed. However, internet and communication softwares/devices in any form are not allowed. During the 3 h exam time, students are not allowed to discuss/consult with anyone and what is handed in must be each student's original, individual and hand-written (hand-drawing) work. If there is any hint that the content is copied, zero credit will be given.
    Mid-term exam will cover the lectures and reading assignments from the preceding parts of the course. The final exam will cover material from throughout the course. Some of the test questions will be similar to the homework problems in style (i.e., short-answer; calculations; explanations of concepts), but some questions will require the student to apply previous material to new situations.
    Unless for definitions, memorizing (complicate) equations is not required because one can always look it up. However, understanding the correlation between factors and the physics behind is crucial.

    COVID-19 Measures

    It is pretty much impossible for me to wear mask and talked non-stop for three hours - it is difficult to breath and the mask will keep shifting so that I have to keep moving it back instead of focus on teaching. Therefore, I will not wear a mask when teaching but will try to keep distance as far as possible. For those who are worried, please feel free to use distance learning by watching records. The date of slide (PDF file) and video (last one in each section) uploaded is noted on the website. Nevertheless, if you have questions and we do one-on-one discussion, I will follow CDC guidelines to wear mask if it is required.
    For exams, if we are still required not to gather in classroom, I will send out questions via e-mail on 2:20 pm. Hand-write your answers and staple pages together following the sequence of the question. No credit will be given to copied or out-of-order content. Please drop your work (with homework) at the departmental office before 5:30 and late submission will not be accepted. I will try to collect them for grading ASAP.

    Syllabus

    Lecture topics, readings, and dates of homework assignments are subject to change and slides may be updated as we go along. Tests will cover the lecture content and the reading assignments.
    Week Date Lecture Topic Slide Recording
    1 9/28 Introduction: surface analysis, vacuum system 20211005
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    00
    01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
    20211005
    2 10/5 Introduction: sample preparation
    3 10/12 Introduction: general considerations
    4 10/19 Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) 20211020
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
    20211020
    00
    5 10/26 PES: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, a.k.a. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, ESCA)
    6 11/2 PES: Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS)
    7 11/9 Quantitative XPS
    8 11/16 Angle-Resolved XPS (ARXPS)
    Homework #1 assigned  notes
    supp Surface (2D) Crystallography; Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED); Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED); Dynamic (ns) and Ultrafast (fs) Electron Diffraction 20211012
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    01 02 03 04 05
    20211114
    9 11/23 Mid-Term Exam;
    Homework #1 due
    10 11/30 Sputter Depth Profile 20211129
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09
    20211129
    11 12/7 Inverted Photoelectron Spectroscopy (iPES)
    supp Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); low-vacuum operations; Electron Backscatter Pattern (EBSP); Electron Beam Induced Conductivity (EBIC); Cathodoluminescence (CL), etc. 20220328
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
    20220328
    12 12/14 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) 20211203
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    01 02 03 04 05 06 07
    20211218
    13 12/21 Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM)
    14 12/28 Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA): X-ray Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (XWDS) 20211216
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08
    20211216
    15 1/4 EPMA: X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (XEDS)
    Homework #2 assigned
    16 1/11 Final Exam;
    Homework #2 due
    *need to turn in final grade before 1/26
    17 *no class if can finish. scheduled time (50×3×2=300min) distributed to be extra 20 min in each class (20×16=320 min)
    on-line section:
    (Reflection) Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy ((R)EELS); Electron Spectroscopic Imaging, Low-Energy/PhotoEmission Electron Microscopy (LEEM/PEEM)
    20211124
    [PDF] [quicktime]
    01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
    20211124
    18

    Rubric

     

     

    Excellent

    Satisfactory

    Needs work

    Surface analysis and surface science

    Sensitivity as a function of spatial resolution

    • Sensitivity of different techniques
    • Strength of different techniques
    • Physical limitation
    • Number of atoms in solid

    None of the above

    Adsorption of molecules on surfaces

    • Collision rate
    • Thermal desorption techniques
    • Mean free path

    None of the above

    Vacuum system

    • Selection of vacuum components
    • Category of vacuum pumps
    • Vacuum gauges

    None of the above

    General considerations

    • Environment and utilities
    • Sample preparation

    None of the above

    Photoemission Spectroscopy (PES)

    X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

    • Pass energy and operation of analyzer/detector
    • Spectral features in XPS
    • Final-state effect
    • Chemical shift
    • Quantitative analysis
    • Angle-resolved XPS
    • Photoelectric effect
    • Instrumentation
    • Definition of kinetic energy of photoelectron
    • Sampling depth
    • Position of Auger peak
    • Qualitative analysis
    • Depth profile

    None of the above

    Sputter Depth Profile

    • Cluster ion sputtering
    • Factor analysis
    • Ion sputtering
    • Preferential sputter and artifacts

    None of the above

    Ultra-violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS)

    • Angle-resolved UPS
    • Valence band spectrum
    • Angle-integrated UPS
    • Work function determination

    None of the above

    Inverted Photoelectron Spectroscopy (iPES)

    • Conduction band spectrum
    • Difference from PES

    None of the above

    Electron Diffraction

    Surface crystallography

    • Ten 2D point groups
    • Seventeen 2D space groups
    • Five 2D lattices
    • Wood’s notation and matrix notation

    None of the above

    Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)

    • Reciprocal lattice in 2D
    • Spot-Profile-Analysis LEED
    • I(V)
    • Electron diffraction
    • Ewald construction for LEED condition

    None of the above

    Reflective High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED)

    • Source and application of intensity oscillation
    • Ewald construction for RHEED condition

    None of the above

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)

    • Experimental Parameters
    • Origin of Kikuchi lines

    None of the above

    Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

    General SEM

    • Magnification and raster size
    • Instrumentation
    • Resolution limitation
    • Operation modes for objective lens
    • Signal generation
    • Depth of focus
    • Resolution vs. current
    • Kinetic energy of electrons

    None of the above

    SE and BSE imaging

    • Yield of SE and BSE
    • Low-vacuum and environmental SEM
    • Effect of instrumental parameters on the image
    • Signal processing
    • Classification of SE
    • Contrast in SE and BSE imaging
    • Operation of detectors

    None of the above

    Advanced operation

    • Channeling pattern
    • Time-resolved SEM
    • EBIC
    • CL

    None of the above

    (Reflection) Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (REELS)

    Inelastic scattering

    • Different types of inelastic scattering
    • Plasmon, phonon
    • Continuous energy loss

    None of the above

    Spectrum

    • Inner-shell ionization: ELNES and EXELFS
    • Quantitative EELS: partial ionization cross-section
    • Background substraction
    • Zero-loss peak
    • Low-loss region
    • High-loss region
    • Shape of adsorption edge
    • Qualitative EELS

    None of the above

    Electron Spectroscopic Image

    • Energy-filtered diffraction
    • Two- and three-window technique
    • Electron tomography
    • Zero-loss filtering
    • Electron Spectroscopic Imaging
    • Detection limit and spatial resolution of ESI

    None of the above

    Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
    Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM)

    • Two-electron de-excitation
    • Coster-Kronig transition
    • Operation mode of energy analyzer
    • Quantitative analysis
    • Nomenclature
    • Differential analysis
    • Chemical shift
    • Instrumentation
    • Charge consideration
    • Qualitative analysis
    • Schemes of depth-profile

    None of the above

    Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA)

    General

    • Inner-shell ionization by electron or high-energy particle
    • X-ray fluorescence yield
    • Interaction volume (lateral and depth distribution)
    • Effect of beam energy
    • Quantitative analysis (ZAF correction)
    • Characteristic x-ray and bremsstrahlung
    • Selection rule of x-ray generation
    • Qualitative analysis
    • Accuracy of standard-less quantification
    • X-ray imaging

    None of the above

    X-ray Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy

    • Selecting crystals for XWDS
    • Fully focused x-ray spectrometer
    • Maximizing signal intensity

    None of the above

    X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

    • Principle of Si(Li) and SDD
    • Processing time and dead time ratio
    • Principle of pulse processing
    • Role of collimater
    • Detection solid angle
    • Energy resolution of XEDS
    • Artifacts in XEDS

    None of the above

    Last update: 20211111